Even the most seasoned Middle East observers were taken aback by the events of early 2011. Protests born of oppression and socioeconomic frustration erupted throughout the streets; public unrest provoked violent police backlash; long-established dictatorships fell. How did this all happen? What might the future look like, and what are the likely ramifications for the United States and the rest of the world? In The Arab Awakening, experts from the Brookings Institution tackle such questions to make sense of this tumultuous region that remains at the heart of U.S. national interests. The first portion of The Arab Awakening offers broad lessons by analyzing key aspects of the Mideast turmoil, such as public opinion trends within the "Arab Street"; the role of social media and technology; socioeconomic and demographic conditions; the influence of Islamists; and the impact of the new political order on the Arab-Israeli peace process. The next section looks at the countries themselves, finding commonalties and grouping them according to the political evolutions that have (or have not) occurred in each country. The section offers insight into the current situation, and possible trajectory of each group of countries, followed by individual nation studies. The Arab Awakening brings the full resources of Brookings to bear on making sense of what may turn out to be the most significant geopolitical movement of this generation. It is essential reading for anyone looking to understand these developments and their consequences.
In The Consequences of Syria , Lee Smith analyzes the current U.S. administration's stance on Syria, questioning whether it will build the foundations of a new Middle East or usher in an era of instability that will affect the entire world. The author contends that the many apparent shifts in the administration's Syria policy were part of a messaging campaign intended to camouflage President Obama's determination to stay out of the Syrian conflict. Smith concludes that the next White House will have to deal with a region that contains more violence, betrayed allies, emboldened adversaries, and an Iran almost on the verge of a nuclear breakout that will further destabilize a vital strategic region.
A documentary history of how intelligence influenced Britain's policy response to key 20th century events.For more than 50 years, the Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) has been central to the secret machinery of the British Government, acting as a broker between the realms of the spy and the policy-maker. These 18 case studies look at key moments in the JIC's history, from WWII to the War in Iraq andfrom the Falklands to the IRA. Each case study includes a contextualising introduction, a full reproduction of an original document that influenced the government's policy response to a particular situation and explanatory footnotes.
The U.S. intelligence community has assessed with high confidence that Syrian government forces used sarin nerve gas in limited attacks earlier this year and conducted a mass casualty chemical weapons attack against rebel held areas near Damascus on 21 August 2013. In June 2013, the Obama Administration stated that reported chemical attacks would lead the United States to offer more material support to the opposition. This book examines the background issues and U.S. response options in the armed conflict in Syria; the humanitarian response; and includes remarks made by President Obama in an address to the Nation about Syria on 10 September 2013.