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Guide to Citations

Help with citation information

Guidelines and examples

The Author-Date System has long been used by those in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in the parentheses, by author's last name and date of publication. The short citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.

Each example includes an in-text citation (T) followed by a reference-list entry (R).


Book: Single Author

T: (Miller 1992, 41)

R: Miller, Mark F. 1992. "Dear Old Roanoke" : a sesquicentennial portrait, 1842-1992. Macon, Ga. : Mercer University Press.

Book: Two Authors

T: (Hock and Price 2004, 93-4)

R: Hock, Randolph, and Gary Price. 2004. The extreme seracher's Internet handbook: A guide for the serious searcher. Medford: CyberAge Books.

Book: Four or More Authors

T: (Lowe et al. 1988, 149)

R:Lowe, Timothy, Christie Davidson, Maragaret Helen, and Donald Miller. 1988. Germany on a dollar a day. 6th ed. New York: Wiley.

Book: No Authors

If no personal author's name is listed on the title page, the organization/corporation is listed as author, even if it is also given as publisher.

T: (JIST Works 2000, 73)

R: JIST Works. 2000. NAICS desk reference: The North American industry classification system desk reference. Indianapolis: JIST Works.

Book: Multivolume

When citing the work as a whole, give the total number of volumes after the title (or editor). If published over several years, give the range of years.

T: (Wright 1969-78, 2:341)

R: Wright, Sewell. 1969-78. Evolution and the genetics of populations. 4 vols. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

When citing only one volume:

T: (Wright 1969, 341)

R: Wright, Sewell. 1969. Theory of gene frequencies. Vol. 2 of Evolution and the genetics of populations. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

Chapter in a Book

T: (Willison 2005, 52-3)

R: Willison, Jr., Robert F. 2005. William Shakespeare's Theater. In The Greenwood companion to Shakespeare: A comprehensive guide for students, ed. Joseph Rosenblum, 47-64. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

If a book is available in more than one format, you should cite the version you consulted, but you may also list the other formats, as in the second example below. If an access date is required by your publisher or discipline, include it parenthetically at the end of the citation, as in the second example below.
T: (Kurland, Phillip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. 1987. The Founders' Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (accessed June 20, 2009).


Journal with Issue Number Available

T: (Simmons and Becker-Olsen 2006, 161)

R: Simmons, Carolyn and Karen Becker-Olsen. 2006. Achieving marketing objectives through social sponsorships. Journal of Marketing 70, no. 4: 154-169.

Journal iwth no Issue Number 

T: (Graham 2006, 157)

R: Graham, Sarah. 2006. Impossible to hold: Women and culture in the 1960s. Journal of American Studies 40: 156-159.

Article in an Online Journal 

T: (Hlatky et al. 2002)

R: Hlatky, Mark A., Derek Boothroyd, Eric Vittinghoff, Penny Sharp, and Mary A. Whooley. 2002. Quality-of-life and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women after receiving hormone therapy. Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (February 6). (accessed January 7, 2004).

Article in an Online Database

This is the same as for online journals as listed above, including use of access date. Also include the URL of the main entrance of the database.

T: (Thomas 1956, 71)

R: Thomas, Trevor M. Wales: Land of Mines and Quarries. Geographical Review 46, no 1 (1956): 59-81.

Entire Website  

Websites may be cited in running text ("According to the National Weather Service's website, warmer temperatures may be expected...") instead of a note, and they are commonly omitted from the reference list as well. The following examples show the more formal version of the citations. Add the date the material was last accessed for time-sensitve data or if you are reuired.

T: (National Weather Service)

R: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. NOAA's National Weather Service. U.S. Dept of Commerce. (accessed January 23, 2006).


T: (Reed 2006, 21)

R: Reed, Stanley. 2006. Seeing past the war. Business Week, August 21.


Newspaper articles may be cited in running text ("As William Niederkom noted in a New York Timesarticle on June 20, 2010, ...") instead of in a note or an in-text citation, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well. The following examples show the more formal version of the citations.

T: (Seward 2006)

R: Seward, Zachary. 2006. Colleges expand early admissions. Wall Street Journal. December 14. Eastern edition.