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Guide to Citations: In-Text Citations

Help with citation information

Paraphrasing and Direct Quotes

In-Text Citations

  • After a quote, add the author's last name and a page reference. This identifies the source and the specific location from which you borrowed the material.

           Example: "Beauty without grace is the hook without the bait" (Emerson 31).

  • If you use more than one work by the same author, include the title or a shortened form of the title.

           Example: "Beauty without grace is the hook without the bait" (Emerson, The Conduct of Life 31).

  • If citing a multivolume work, include the volume number before the page numbers.

            Example: "Beauty without grace is the hook without the bait" (Emerson 2:31).

  • If using the author's name in your text, do not include it in the parentheses.

           Example: In Ralph Waldo Emerson's collection of essays titled The Conduct of Life, he mused "beauty without grace is the hook without the bait"(31).

  • If using more than one author with the same last name, use their first initial.

            Example: "Beauty without grace is the hook without the bait" (R. Emerson 31).

  •  If two or more authors wrote the work, list them all.

            Example: "Beauty without grace is the hook without the bait" (Emerson and Thoreau 31).

  • If no pagination is available, but paragraphs are numbered, include that information.

            Example: "Beauty without grace is the hook without the bait" (Emerson par. 3).

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