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Guide to Citations: Chicago Manual

Help with citation information


The Chicago and Turabian styles are nearly identical.

Kate Turabian, the dissertation secretary at the University of Chicago for over 30 years, developed her guide for students and researchers writing papers, theses, and dissertations. Her manual is based on the University of Chicago Press's Manual of Style and departs from it in few places.

The differences between the Chicago and Turabian styles are mainly seen in how notes are numbered.

 In Turabian style, use superscript 1 for endnote and footnote numbers in the text and at the beginning of each note.


In Chicago style, the note number in the text is in parentheses (1) and is followed by a period and space  in the note, as in the following example:


1.       Chicag



The online guide to Chicago Manual of Style is here

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